wingspan :  44/50 mm

what we call the "Northern type", found from Baños to Alao, has typically a small and roundish HW patch.
in this area the majority of P. phaedra belong to the white form and tend to be rather small.
this is the only area where we found quite a few specimens that are neither pure white nor yellow, and also a good number of individuals with the FW stripe really white and the HW patch almost yellow.

on butterfliesofamerica Pedaliodes phaedra has two subspecies only, a white one and a yellow one, that's not many ; but these two "subspecies" fly together in most places.
worse, six new subspecies are presently being described, and the six of them from Ecuador... does it make sense ?

the limited knowledge we acquired through fieldwork is that :
- yellow forms and white forms are sympatric,
- in the South, yellow forms clearly outnumber white forms, and in the North it's the opposite,
- in the North of Sangay NP, white forms are really white, and yellow forms a very pale kind of yellow,
- when, in the Center and in he South, yellow forms are a strong yellow, and white forms a very pale yellow, as is the rule in Southern Ecuador,
- particularly in the North of Sangay NP, fly specimens with white FW markings, and HW markings almost yellow,
- and, most important, on a given location, white and yellow forms share the same pattern.

we consider we have three phenotypes in Sangay NP :
   - Northern type, from Baños to Riobamba, and particularly Alao (on this page the white form),
   - Central type, East of'Atillo, but on the Eastern slopes,
   - Southern type, Azogues.





Pedaliodes phaedra a Runtun
Pedaliodes phaedra a Runtun
Pedaliodes phaedra a Runtun
Pedaliodes phaedra a Runtun
Pedaliodes phaedra a Runtun

the last specimen (n°12) found at 2500 meters near Patate (Tungurahua) is markedly different from any other,
and should, perhaps, be on a page of its own ?

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